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教师资格笔试英语-阅读闯关

来源:  时间:2020-04-10 09:20:35

阅读闯关
A
The process of perceiving others is rarely translated (to ourselves or others) into cold, objective terms. “She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt.” More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint (强调) his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations, abilities, ideas, and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly — perhaps with a two-second glance.
We try to obtain information about others in many ways. Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others; who are known to you so you can compare the observed person’s behavior with the known others’ behavior, observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for, deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person’s responses to specific stimuli (刺激因素), asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about him or her, and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person — question, self-disclosures, and so on.
Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won’t ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior. Ironically, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well(e. g. secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a satisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person (e. g. disclosures and truthful statement).
1. According to the passage, if we perceive a person, we are likely to be interested in
A. what he wears B. how tall he is
C. how happy he is D. what color he dyes his hair
2. Some people are often surprised by what other people do. According to Berger, that is mainly because_____.
A. some people are more emotional than others
B. some people are not aware of the fact that we will never completely know another person
C. some people are sensitive enough to sense the change of other people’s attitudes
D. some people choose to keep to themselves
3. We may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him because_____.
A. we don’t accept the idea that we might never fully know another person
B. we often get information in a casual and inexact way
C. we pay more attention to other people’s motivations and emotions
D. we often have face-to-face conversation with him
4. There are things that we find preventing us from knowing others. These things are _____.
A. disclosures B. deceptions C. stimuli D. interactions
5. This passage mainly concerns_____.
A. the relationship between people B. the perception of other people
C. secrets and deceptions of people D. people’s attitudes and characters
【答案解析】
1.【答案】C。解析:细节理解题。根据第一段“More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint (强调) his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations, abilities, ideas, and characters.更多的时候,我们从对方内在的东西来了解他/她的态度、情绪、动机、能力、想法和性格。”可知,如果我们要认识一个人,那么我们会对他/她的幸福感感兴趣。故选C。
2.【答案】B。解析:推理判断题。根据第三段“It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior.”和“If we accept the idea that we won’t ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions”可知,故选B。
3.【答案】B。解析:细节理解题。根据第三段第一句“Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise.”可知,故选B。
4.【答案】B。解析:细节理解题。根据“those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e. g. secrets and deceptions) may be …”可知,故选B。
5.【答案】B。解析:主旨大意题。从文章第一段The process of perceiving others is rarely translated (to ourselves or others) into cold, objective terms.以及后面的内容可以看出,文章是讲述perceiving的,故选B。
B
Water problems in the future will become more intense and more complex. Our increasing population will tremendously increase urban wastes, primarily sewage. On the other hand, increasing demands for water will decrease substantially the amount of water available for diluting wastes. Rapidly expanding industries which involve more and more complex chemical processes will produce large volumes of liquid wastes, and many of these will contain chemicals which are poisonous. To feed our rapidly expanding population, agriculture will have to be intensified. This will involve ever-increasing quantities of agriculture chemicals. From this, it is apparent that drastic steps must be taken immediately to develop corrective measures for the pollution problem.
There are two ways by which this pollution problem can be lessened. The first relates to the treatment of wastes to decrease their pollution hazard. This involves the processing of solid wastes “prior to” disposal and the treatment of liquid wastes, or effluents (废料), to permit the reuse of the water or best reduce pollution upon final disposal.
A second approach is to develop an economic use for all or a part of the wastes. Farm manure is spread in fields as a nutrient (养料) or organic supplement. Effluents from sewage disposal plants are used in some areas both for irrigation and for the nutrients contained. Effluents from other processing plants may also be used as a supplemental source of water. Many industries, such as meat and poultry processing plants, are currently converting former waste production into marketable byproducts. Other industries have potential economic uses for their waste products.
6. The purpose of this passage is_____.
A. to warn the reader of the dwindling water supply
B. to explain industrial uses of water
C. to acquaint the reader with water pollution problems
D. to demonstrate various measures to solve the pollution problem
7. Which of the following points is not included in the passage?
A. Industrial development includes the simplification of complex chemical processes.
B. Diluting wastes needs certain amount of water.
C. Demands for water will go up along with the expanding population.
D. Intensive cultivation of land requires more and more chemicals.
8. The reader can conclude that_____.
A. countries of the world will work together on pollution problems
B. byproducts from wastes lead to a more prosperous marketplace
C. science is making great progress on increasing water supplies
D. some industries are now making economic use of wastes
9. The author gives substance to the passage through the use of_____.
A. interviews with authorities in the field of water controls
B. opinion and personal observations
C. definitions which clarify important terms
D. strong argument and persuasions
10. The words “prior to” (Para. 2) probably mean _____.
A. after B. during C. before D. beyond
【答案解析】
6.【答案】C。解析:主旨大意题。从第一段结尾“From this, it is apparent that drastic steps must be taken immediately to develop corrective measures for the pollution problem.”和第二段开头“There are two ways by which this pollution problem can be lessened.”可知文章主要讲述水污染的问题,故选C。
7.【答案】A。解析:细节理解题。从文章第一段“On the other hand, increasing demands for water will decrease substantially the amount of water available for diluting wastes.”可知B是有提到的;从“Our increasing population will tremendously increase urban wastes, primarily sewage.”可知C有提及;从“To feed our rapidly expanding population, agriculture will have to be intensified. This will involve ever-increasing quantities of agriculture chemicals.”可知D有提及,故选A。
8.【答案】D。解析:细节理解题。从文章最后一句“Other industries have potential economic uses for their waste products. ”可知,故选D。
9.【答案】B。解析:细节理解题。文章都是作者自己的观点和建议,故选B。
10.【答案】C。解析:猜测词义题。根据“This involves the processing of solid wastes “prior to” disposal and the treatment of liquid wastes, or effluents, to permit the reuse of the water or best reduce pollution upon final disposal.”,处理“固体废物”之前要处置和处理液体废物等,故选C。
 

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